Food additives

 Additives E450 belong to the group of pyrophosphates — salts and esters of pyrophosphoric acid. The general chemical formula of pyrophosphates is: P2O74−.

In the international system of classification and numbering of food additives, there are nine types of pyrophosphates used in food production. When specifying a specific type in the name of the additive E450, a subscript in the form of Roman numerals is used.
E450(i) – Sodium Dihydropyrophosphate
E450(ii) – Sodium Monohydropyrophosphate
E450(iii) – Sodium Pyrophosphate
E450(iv) – Potassium Dihydropyrophosphate
E450(v) – Potassium Pyrophosphate
E450(vi) – Calcium Pyrophosphate
E450(vii) – Calcium Dihydropyrophosphate
E450(viii) – Dimagnesium Pyrophosphate
E450(ix) – Magnesium Dihydrogen Phosphate
In Russia, according to SanPiN 2.3.2 1293-03, the use of the first seven additives from the above is allowed.
Orthophosphoric acid, sodium and potassium hydroxides, calcium oxide and hydroxide are used for the production of pyrophosphates. The product is obtained by dehydration of hydroorthophosphate with an appropriate acid. 
Potassium and sodium pyrophosphates are well soluble in water, but insoluble in alcohol. Calcium pyrophosphates do not dissolve in water, but they are well soluble in hydrochloric and nitric acids. Sodium pyrophosphates are mainly used in food production. 
The main parameters of the additive E450:
Color – white, transparent.
The smell is neutral.
The taste is sour. 
Consistency – granules, crystalline powder of fine or medium fractions.
Effect on the body
Excessive use of pyrophosphates can cause various negative consequences: 
-upset stomach, 
-disorders, joint diseases (including pyrophosphate arthropathy, which is caused by the deposition of calcium pyrophosphate crystals in tissues),
-disorders associated with an imbalance of phosphorus and calcium in the body, which can provoke the development of osteoporosis,
-an increase in LDL cholesterol, which leads to the formation of vascular plaques, blood supply disorders, strokes.
-deterioration of calcium absorption, as a result of which phosphorus and calcium are deposited in the kidneys, contributing to the development of osteoporosis. 
        Products containing the E450 additive are particularly dangerous for people who consume large amounts of natural phosphorus. As part of cosmetics, pyrophosphates can cause allergic rash and irritation of the mucous membranes. 
The useful qualities of pyrophosphates have not been revealed. At the same time, the food additive E450 is recognized as safe (Class 4 according to GOST 12.1.007). However, there is a requirement for the production of products with its content to comply with the permissible norm. 
Pyrophosphates are widely used in the food industry (especially in meat and fish processing). Their main purpose is to increase the volume of muscle tissue, which in turn increases the yield of finished products. Pyrophosphates also improve various organoleptic parameters, the consistency of the product, stabilize its color and slow down the course of oxidative processes. 
Also, the additive E450 is used in the production of food products as an emulsifier or melting salt. It is actively used in the canning of various meat products, in the preparation of processed cheeses. The additive may be contained in some dairy products. Pyrophosphates can play the role of antioxidants, as they slow down the oxidative processes of fats, prolong the shelf life of the product. 
The main applications of the emulsifier E450: 
Production of minced meat (the permitted dose of the additive E450 is 0.3% of the total weight).
Production of sausages, canned food – pyrophosphates are added during the heat treatment of the product to swell proteins: this helps to retain moisture in the product, improve its structure, increase juiciness, increase the yield of the product. 
Production of young and processed cheeses – the additive acts as an emulsifying salt (the permissible norm is 9 g per 1 kg of products): pyrophosphates prevent delamination of the emulsion, wrinkling of the finished product. 
Production of confectionery sugar and flour products, concentrated syrups – pyrophosphates act as a moisture-retaining agent (the permissible norm is 3 g per 1 kg of product): the food additive E450 helps to preserve the consistency of the product, prevents its drying, slows down the process of crystallization of sucrose.
Production of vegetable–based cream, dairy desserts, sandwich spreads, sauces, liquid text – pyrophosphates act as a texturator (the permissible norm is 5 g per 1 kg of product): the additive allows you to create a homgenized mass. 
Production of concentrates, dry mixes, milk, egg, baking powders (permissible dose – up to 10 g per 1 kg of product).
Production of soft drinks (flavored, mineralized), fruit products, dry teas, berry ice cream – pyrophosphates serve as an acidity regulator. 
Production of pasta and bread products – E450 additive helps to improve the quality of flour and dough structure.
Production of chocolate, barley milk drinks – pyrophosphates work as turbidity stabilizers, prevent particle deposition, liquid stratification. 
Frozen potato production – food additive E450 slows down the darkening of the product, preserves its structure during cooking.
Production of protein shakes for sports nutrition (the permissible norm is up to 20 g per 1 kg of product) – pyrophosphates, used as an emulsifier. 
Other areas of application:
-it is used in the production of detergents and insecticides;
-it is used as an additive to paints, drilling fluids and as a corrosion inhibitor;
-it is used in the medical industry, as it has a bactericidal effect.
Pyrophosphates are allowed for use in all countries with a limit of the permissible norm (70 mg/kg). In the Codex Alimentarius, the additive is allowed in the standards for meat and fish products, processed cheeses, dry broths, frozen vegetables (from 1 to 9 g/kg).