Food additives

 Guaran or guar gum (additive E412) is used in the food industry as a stabilizer, thickener and structurator.

Guar gum belongs to polysaccharides and is a highly soluble substance. In its chemical composition, guar gum is similar to carob gum (food additive E410). It is a polymer compound that contains galactose residues. At the same time, guaran is quite rigid and has increased elasticity and solubility in water. Due to this, the additive E412 is considered a very profitable emulsifier and stabilizer. Also, this additive is characterized by good resistance during the cycle of freezing and defrosting of products.
Guar gum is extracted from guar beans (Indian acacia pods) grown mainly in India and Pakistan. Approximately 80% of the world's guar gum production comes from India. Guar gum is also produced in the USA, Africa, Canada and Australia.
The method of production of the E412 additive consists in obtaining an extract from the seeds of the Cyamopsis tetragonolobus plant. It is supplied to food industry enterprises in the form of a crushed pale powder with a white tint.
The main parameters of the food additive E412:
The smell is absent or weak, characteristic.
The taste is neutral.
The color is white with a grayish or yellowish tinge.
The consistency is powder. 
Effect on the body
Benefit
In the human body, guaran is practically not absorbed by the intestine, so it is believed that the E412 supplement is harmless to health.
This supplement reduces appetite and effectively reduces the elevated levels of saturated fats and cholesterol in the body. Also guar gum:
helps to remove toxins and harmful bacteria from the intestine, 
increases the absorption of calcium by the body,
is used in dietary nutrition, providing a feeling of satiety in the body. 
Often, the E412 supplement is added to diabetic medications to slow down the absorption of sugar in the intestine.
Harm
At the end of 1980, in the USA, the supplement was actively used in weight loss drugs. As a result, at least 10 people were hospitalized with a fatal outcome due to blockage of the esophagus as a result of the use of drugs in large quantities with insufficient fluid intake. Later, studies conducted by scientists proved the ineffectiveness of guar gum in weight loss.
Using
The main property of guar gum is the ability to slow down the crystallization of ice in various frozen foods, which is why it is especially often used in ice cream or in the manufacture of a variety of chilled confectionery.
Also, as a stabilizer, the additive E412 can be used in:
meat industry – stabilizer increases the viscosity of minced meat, helps to increase its volume;
bakery production (food additive E412 increases the shelf life of products and gives them greater elasticity and density);
in the production of cheeses, dairy products (yogurt, kefir, milk) - as a stabilizer, filler, contributing to the acceleration of maturation, increase in volume;
in the manufacture of jellies, jams, frozen desserts – the food additive E412 helps to compact the mass, make it thicker;
in the production of salads – guar gum improves their appearance;
in the manufacture of seasonings and ketchup, mayonnaise, fats, oils – the stabilizer helps the product to preserve integrity, not to be layered, to create a homogeneous mass;
in the production of syrups and juices, food concentrates, dry soups, instant cereals – the E412 additive improves the texture of the product.
Also, stabilizer E412 can be seen in the composition of pet food.
Other applications of guar gum:
  • textile industry;
  • paper industry;
  • production of explosives;
  • cosmetic industry (food additive E412 is used as a conditioner in shampoos and a thickener in toothpastes);
  • pharmaceutical industry (stabilizer serves as a binder in tablets);
  • oil and gas industry;
  • coal industry.
Legislation 
The food additive E412 is allowed for use in Russia, Ukraine, both as an independent food additive and in combination with other substances.