Food additives

 The additive E952, better known as sodium cyclamate, is used in the food industry as a sweetener. This chemical is ten times sweeter than sugar. Some people find products with sodium cyclamate unpleasant to taste.

From the point of view of chemistry, the additive E952 is cyclamic acid and its sodium, potassium and calcium salts. The chemical formula of sodium cyclamate is C6H12S3NNaO.
The additive E952 is obtained by sulfonation from cyclohexylamine. The cyclamate formation reaction is achieved by reacting cyclohexylamine with sulfamic acid or sulfur trioxide.
Cyclamate was discovered in 1937 at the University of Illinois by graduate student Michael Sweda. The graduate student worked in the laboratory for the synthesis of antipyretic. By chance, he dropped a cigarette into the drug, and when he took it back into his mouth, he discovered the sweet taste of cyclamate.
The patent for cyclamate was acquired by DuPont, but later sold to Abbott Laboratories, which conducted the necessary research and introduced a new drug in 1950. Initially, Abbott intended to use cyclamate to mask the bitterness of certain medicines, such as antibiotics and pentobarbital. In 1958, cyclamate was recognized as a safe food additive in the USA. Cyclamate was sold in the form of tablets for use by diabetics as an alternative to sugar.
However, in 1966, studies showed that some intestinal bacteria can break down cyclamate to form cyclohexylamine, which, in turn, can be toxic to some living organisms. Further studies on rats conducted in 1969 showed that cyclamate contributes to the development of bladder cancer. After these studies, the FDA banned the use of cyclamate in the United States. Since then, Abbott has repeatedly applied to the FDA with a request to lift the ban on cyclamate, citing reasons for its safety. However, to date, the additive E952 remains banned for use in the US food industry.
Now most experts believe that the E952 supplement does not cause cancer directly, but can increase the effect of other carcinogens.
The E952 supplement is not absorbed by the body of most people and animals and is excreted in the urine. The safe daily dose of sodium cyclamate is 10 mg per 1 kg of body weight. At the same time, a number of people have bacteria in their intestines that process sodium cyclamate to form conditionally teratogenic metabolites. Therefore, the use of products with the E952 supplement is not recommended for pregnant women.
Most often, a mixture consisting of 10 parts of cyclamate and 1 part of saccharin is used in food products. Cyclamate is often used in low-calorie beverages, diabetic products. Sweetener E952 is stable when heated, which allows it to be used in confectionery and hot instant drinks.
Despite the possible harm to health, today the additive E952 is allowed for use as a sweetener in more than 55 countries. Cyclamate is also included in the list of permitted food additives in Ukraine. In the Russian Federation, sodium cyclamate was removed from the list of permitted food additives on December 23, 2010.